Thursday, May 21, 2020

What Is Biotechnology And Its Ramification To Breast Cancer

Biotechnology and its Ramification to Breast Cancer According to the Centers of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in 2014; 236,968 women and 2,141 men in the United States were diagnosed with breast cancer. And 41,211 women and 465 men in the United States died from breast cancer (U.S. Cancer Statistics Working Group, 2017). That volume of death could have drastically been decreased if the clinicians, physicians, and oncologists utilized the Mammaprint. To understand the way Mammaprint makes a difference we first need to understand breast cancer at different levels. Some ideas we need to know are about the way that breast cancer evolves and utilizes energy, the different biomarkers and genetic makeup of breast cancer, chemotherapeutics†¦show more content†¦Warburg), the standard process in cancer metabolism (Gentric, 2017). We need to consider the significant role of TME, especially CAFs and immune cells, which profoundly participate in the metabolic interplay with neoplastic cells. CAFs and immune cells can collectively adapt to the metabolic needs of cancer cells and thus participate in tumorigenesis. Metabolic balance between all these players also promotes resistance to treatments, including not only the conventional chemotherapy or radiotherapy but also the most recent and advanced immunotherapies. Characterizing the mutual metabolic interplay between stromal, immune, and neoplastic cells will likely provide a better understanding of tumor progression and treatment resistance (Gentric, 2017). Biomarkers and Genetic Polymorphism Genome studies have identified about 80 or more genetic variants or single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) linked with breast cancer risk. Each variant only discreetly alters breast cancer risk; however, together they add large risk data to current risk analysts. Therefore, when added to traditional risk models, such as the Gail model, the Tyrer-Cuzick model and/or the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium (BSCC) model, a combination of genetic risk factors can be used to increase risk arrangement. Risk arrangements with SNPs and other genetic alternates may also be useful to aid in other decisions for breast cancer prevention and screening. ForShow MoreRelatedDeveloping Management Skills404131 Words   |  1617 Pagessolution for courses in Principles of Management, Human Resources, Strategy, and Organizational Behavior that helps you actively study and prepare material for class. Chapter-by-chapter activities, including built-in pretests and posttests, focus on what you need to le arn and to review in order to succeed. Visit www.mymanagementlab.com to learn more. DEVELOPING MANAGEMENT SKILLS EIGHTH EDITION David A. Whetten BRIGHAM YOUNG UNIVERSITY Kim S. Cameron UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN PrenticeRead MoreManagement Course: Mba−10 General Management215330 Words   |  862 Pageseconomic, social, and political churning, how will these driving factors be influenced by the brutally competitive global economy in which organizations do not have any particular geographic identity or travel under any particular national passport? What will be the effect of the rapid gyrations in markets that emphasize the difficulties that accounting practices face in determining true performance costs and that forecasting programs confront in establishing the economic determinants of corporate

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Riding the Winds of Change Free Essays

If I had to choose two of the best traits that I have as a person, it would be my determination and my ability to cope quite well with transition. There had been a point in my life that these traits had been put to the test. It happened when I transferred from a liberal studies program in Florence, Italy into a communications program in New York City. We will write a custom essay sample on Riding the Winds of Change or any similar topic only for you Order Now When I made this shift, I really felt the pressure of struggling to be independent. Living life when you have no one to depend on but yourself is hard to imagine. It is even harder to do. Nonetheless, it is only one of the many challenges I had to deal with as it is but a part of the greater demands of growing up and learning life’s lessons. All things considered, I had to say that I certainly felt more like an individual than I ever did when I was in Florence. For this, I would always take pride in going through that change in my life and successfully overcoming the obstacles which came my way. I somehow see myself in the character of Frederick Tubb. Otherwise known as Bootie, he is one of the characters in Claire Messud’s novel entitled The Emperor’s Children (Messud 160). He is the nephew of Murray Thwaite. He was an idealistic college dropout who was resolved leave a mark of his own. He came to New York City to do just this. He was bound to significantly change the lives of the characters in the story in a way that no one ever though would be possible. He was able to shatter the foundations of those who seemed to have carefully secured their positions to be on top of the world. The moment the worlds of the most successful people have collapsed, they were left with nothing but the wreckage of the material heaven they have traveled great lengths to build. The only thing that was left to do work on their individual self-redemption and brave the challenges ahead armed with an enlightened heart and soul as a result of knowing what really matters in life. Whenever life’s circumstances seem to pull all your defenses down, it is but natural to feel devastated. When you have defied seemingly impossible odds just to prove your self to the rest of the world, it is heartbreaking to one day wake up and learn that all of your hopes and dreams for the future have already crumbled. Just when you thought that tomorrow will bring bountiful blessings, sometimes it presents the worst events you can not even dare to imagine. When enjoy all the comforts in life that the average individual can only hope for, there is no guarantee that your life will never take a drastic turn for the worst. Times are there when success is within reach today but it is some thing which is next to impossible the following day. But life is really hard even for those who are more fortunate than the others. Come to think of it, how do we really measure success? Does it only translate to material wealth? Personally, I do believe that it does have to be so. The real essence of success for me goes beyond the comforts of life that money can buy. Success can also be measured by how far one has tested his or her limits. When one has gathered enough strength to leave his or her comfort zone and start all over again giving another shot at life, the positive outcome of such an endeavor would spell success. I may not own riches to the point that my neighbors would envy the life that I live but I had to say that I have tasted the sweetness of success in the span of my existence. My claims to fame my fail in comparison to certain people but I know what it feels like to be on top of the world. The moment I made one of the greatest transitions I ever did in my life, I must admit that I had my own share of fears and uncertainties of what lies ahead. However, my determination and ability to manage changes saw me through. Indeed, it was one of the most successful endeavors I have ever embarked on my life’s journey. How to cite Riding the Winds of Change, Papers

Thursday, April 23, 2020

Jealousy in the Open Window by Saki Essay Example

Jealousy in the Open Window by Saki Essay â€Å"The Open Window† is the story of a deception did on an unsuspecting, and constitutionally nervous man, by a young lady whose motivations for lying remain unclear. That is Vera, the center of the case in this story. A â€Å"very self-possessed young lady of fifteen,† Described as a girl who has bad manner to other people. She doesn’t have parents and lives with her aunt and her uncle in a country beyond the luxurious city life. Starting from her childhood, she is an attention-starved individual who seeks love and recognition from her parents. Her loneliness is filled by her aunt warm love and attention. It’s suspected that her abandonment and subsequent loneliness influenced her character, but never do I imagine just how much it fractured her. She grows as a girl who likes making up her words, like doing deception to another. The beginning of Vera’s deception starts with Mr. Nuttel coming. He is suffering from an undisclosed nervous illness, has been encouraged to seek refuge in the country. Vera, who starved for attention and love, was too afraid of Mr Nuttel for stealing her aunt attention and care, her only one love she has. I conclude that this kind of deception comes as a reaction to her jealousy. B. JEALOUSY IN PSYCHOLOGICAL VIEW Furthermore, I come up with jealousy as the center of the case in this analysis. Jealousy what I concern about is jealousy especially in the children. Here, Vera’s jealousy is interesting topic to be analyzed more. The jealousy in this case comes as a reaction of Mr. We will write a custom essay sample on Jealousy in the Open Window by Saki specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Jealousy in the Open Window by Saki specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Jealousy in the Open Window by Saki specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Nuttel’s coming. Jealousy is an emotion and typically refers to the negative thoughts and feelings of insecurity, fear, and anxiety over an anticipated loss of something that the person values, such as a relationship, friendship, or love. Jealousy often consists of a combination of emotions such as anger, sadness, and disgust. It is not to be confused with envy. It’s described clearly that what Vera did by making up the story about the Open Window is a kind of thing that shows jealousy to Mr. Nuttel. One of the theorist said: Jealousy is defined as a protective reaction to a perceived threat to a valued relationship, arising from a situation in which the partners involvement with an activity and/or another person is contrary to the jealous persons definition of their relationship. (Bevan, 2004, page 195) Vera’s jealousy stimulates her to do the bad things to Mr. Nuttel. She is trying to arrange a fiction story about her aunt family in order to make Mr. Nuttel goes away from her house. Vera told a huge lie about how Mrs. Sappleton’s family had been missing for three years. It is this story, the death of some relatives who went hunting long ago, causes Mr. Nuttel’s breakdown. She tells Nuttel that the window is left open as a sign of her aunt’s hope that the dead hunters will one day come home and provides a detailed description of the men, their behavior and clothes. Out through that window, three years ago to a day, her husband and her two young brothers went off for their days shooting. They never came back. In crossing the moor to their favorite snipe-shooting ground they were all three engulfed in a treacherous piece of bog. It had been that dreadful wet summer, you know, and places that were safe in other years gave way suddenly without warning. Their bodies were never recovered. That was the dreadful part of it. Here the childs voice lost its self-possessed note and became falteringly human. Poor aunt always thinks that they will come back someday, they and the little brown spaniel that was lost with them, and walk in at that window just as they used to do. That is why the window is kept open every evening till it is quite dusk. Poor dear aunt, she has often told me how they went out, her husband with his white waterproof coat over his arm, and Ronnie, her youngest brother, singing Bertie, why do you bound? as he always did to tease her, because she said it got on her nerves. Do you know, sometimes on still, quiet evenings like this, I almost get a creepy feeling that they will all walk in through that window The quotation for this analysis is all about Vera’s saying to Mr. Nuttel. All she said is only a lie. A lie that was created as a reaction of jealousy. From the author’s point of view, he refers to Vera as â€Å"self-possessed,† which literally means that she has self-control and poise. In the context of this story, it is clear that this is the quality that allows her to lie so well. Vera’s self-possession allows her to maintain a cool head and calm belief while relating that most strange of tales. This kind of deception Vera made is the further action she made as the reaction of her jealousy. In her manipulation of the adults, Vera demonstrates a view that â€Å"children have no power worth the name except their lies and retreats into fantasy. From the source I’ve read (Wikipedia. org), the experience of jealousy involves: fear of loss, suspicion or anger about betrayal, low self-esteem and sadness over loss, uncertainty and loneliness, fear of losing an important person to an attractive other, distrust. Based on the explanation, what Vera did is indicated that she is suffering jealousy. She is fear of loss, low self-esteem and sadness over loss, uncertainty and loneliness, and fear of losing an important person that is her aunt’s attention. The effect of jealousy itself isn’t really good in the process of forming Vera’s character. She becomes an unkind girl who likes making up her words. Furthermore, jealousy in children and teenagers like Vera’s suffer has been observed more often in those with low self-esteem and can cause aggressive reactions. These aggressive reactions often created a bad action from them. One such study suggested that developing intimate friends can be followed by emotional insecurity and loneliness in some children when those intimate friends interact with others. Jealousy linked to aggression and low self-esteem. All what I mentioned above shows clearly that Vera is suffering jealousy. C. CONCLUSION Jealousy is defined as a protective reaction to a perceived threat to a valued relationship. It is an emotion and typically refers to the negative thoughts and feelings of insecurity, fear, and anxiety over an anticipated loss of something that the person values, such as a relationship, friendship, or love. Jealousy often consists of a combination of emotions such as anger, sadness, and disgust. losing Furthermore, jealousy in children and teenagers like Vera’s suffer has been observed more often in those with low self-esteem and can cause aggressive reactions. These aggressive reactions often created a bad action from them. The way to overcome this kind of problem is by let them to honestly express their feelings about one another. Dont downplay a childs feelings, or try talking them out of feeling the way they say they feel. Children feel their parents understand those best when their feelings are acknowledged. Source: Rena Korb, for Short Stories for Students, Gale Research, 1997. Thomas March, for Short Stories for Students, Gale Research, 1997. The open window (criticism): information from Answers. com The Wikipedia. org Jealousy in the Open Window by Saki Essay Example Jealousy in the Open Window by Saki Paper â€Å"The Open Window† is the story of a deception did on an unsuspecting, and constitutionally nervous man, by a young lady whose motivations for lying remain unclear. That is Vera, the center of the case in this story. A â€Å"very self-possessed young lady of fifteen,† Described as a girl who has bad manner to other people. She doesn’t have parents and lives with her aunt and her uncle in a country beyond the luxurious city life. Starting from her childhood, she is an attention-starved individual who seeks love and recognition from her parents. Her loneliness is filled by her aunt warm love and attention. It’s suspected that her abandonment and subsequent loneliness influenced her character, but never do I imagine just how much it fractured her. She grows as a girl who likes making up her words, like doing deception to another. The beginning of Vera’s deception starts with Mr. Nuttel coming. He is suffering from an undisclosed nervous illness, has been encouraged to seek refuge in the country. Vera, who starved for attention and love, was too afraid of Mr Nuttel for stealing her aunt attention and care, her only one love she has. I conclude that this kind of deception comes as a reaction to her jealousy. B. JEALOUSY IN PSYCHOLOGICAL VIEW Furthermore, I come up with jealousy as the center of the case in this analysis. Jealousy what I concern about is jealousy especially in the children. Here, Vera’s jealousy is interesting topic to be analyzed more. The jealousy in this case comes as a reaction of Mr. We will write a custom essay sample on Jealousy in the Open Window by Saki specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Jealousy in the Open Window by Saki specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Jealousy in the Open Window by Saki specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Nuttel’s coming. Jealousy is an emotion and typically refers to the negative thoughts and feelings of insecurity, fear, and anxiety over an anticipated loss of something that the person values, such as a relationship, friendship, or love. Jealousy often consists of a combination of emotions such as anger, sadness, and disgust. It is not to be confused with envy. It’s described clearly that what Vera did by making up the story about the Open Window is a kind of thing that shows jealousy to Mr. Nuttel. One of the theorist said: Jealousy is defined as a protective reaction to a perceived threat to a valued relationship, arising from a situation in which the partners involvement with an activity and/or another person is contrary to the jealous persons definition of their relationship. (Bevan, 2004, page 195) Vera’s jealousy stimulates her to do the bad things to Mr. Nuttel. She is trying to arrange a fiction story about her aunt family in order to make Mr. Nuttel goes away from her house. Vera told a huge lie about how Mrs. Sappleton’s family had been missing for three years. It is this story, the death of some relatives who went hunting long ago, causes Mr. Nuttel’s breakdown. She tells Nuttel that the window is left open as a sign of her aunt’s hope that the dead hunters will one day come home and provides a detailed description of the men, their behavior and clothes. Out through that window, three years ago to a day, her husband and her two young brothers went off for their days shooting. They never came back. In crossing the moor to their favorite snipe-shooting ground they were all three engulfed in a treacherous piece of bog. It had been that dreadful wet summer, you know, and places that were safe in other years gave way suddenly without warning. Their bodies were never recovered. That was the dreadful part of it. Here the childs voice lost its self-possessed note and became falteringly human. Poor aunt always thinks that they will come back someday, they and the little brown spaniel that was lost with them, and walk in at that window just as they used to do. That is why the window is kept open every evening till it is quite dusk. Poor dear aunt, she has often told me how they went out, her husband with his white waterproof coat over his arm, and Ronnie, her youngest brother, singing Bertie, why do you bound? as he always did to tease her, because she said it got on her nerves. Do you know, sometimes on still, quiet evenings like this, I almost get a creepy feeling that they will all walk in through that window The quotation for this analysis is all about Vera’s saying to Mr. Nuttel. All she said is only a lie. A lie that was created as a reaction of jealousy. From the author’s point of view, he refers to Vera as â€Å"self-possessed,† which literally means that she has self-control and poise. In the context of this story, it is clear that this is the quality that allows her to lie so well. Vera’s self-possession allows her to maintain a cool head and calm belief while relating that most strange of tales. This kind of deception Vera made is the further action she made as the reaction of her jealousy. In her manipulation of the adults, Vera demonstrates a view that â€Å"children have no power worth the name except their lies and retreats into fantasy. From the source I’ve read (Wikipedia. org), the experience of jealousy involves: fear of loss, suspicion or anger about betrayal, low self-esteem and sadness over loss, uncertainty and loneliness, fear of losing an important person to an attractive other, distrust. Based on the explanation, what Vera did is indicated that she is suffering jealousy. She is fear of loss, low self-esteem and sadness over loss, uncertainty and loneliness, and fear of losing an important person that is her aunt’s attention. The effect of jealousy itself isn’t really good in the process of forming Vera’s character. She becomes an unkind girl who likes making up her words. Furthermore, jealousy in children and teenagers like Vera’s suffer has been observed more often in those with low self-esteem and can cause aggressive reactions. These aggressive reactions often created a bad action from them. One such study suggested that developing intimate friends can be followed by emotional insecurity and loneliness in some children when those intimate friends interact with others. Jealousy linked to aggression and low self-esteem. All what I mentioned above shows clearly that Vera is suffering jealousy. C. CONCLUSION Jealousy is defined as a protective reaction to a perceived threat to a valued relationship. It is an emotion and typically refers to the negative thoughts and feelings of insecurity, fear, and anxiety over an anticipated loss of something that the person values, such as a relationship, friendship, or love. Jealousy often consists of a combination of emotions such as anger, sadness, and disgust. losing Furthermore, jealousy in children and teenagers like Vera’s suffer has been observed more often in those with low self-esteem and can cause aggressive reactions. These aggressive reactions often created a bad action from them. The way to overcome this kind of problem is by let them to honestly express their feelings about one another. Dont downplay a childs feelings, or try talking them out of feeling the way they say they feel. Children feel their parents understand those best when their feelings are acknowledged. Source: Rena Korb, for Short Stories for Students, Gale Research, 1997. Thomas March, for Short Stories for Students, Gale Research, 1997. The open window (criticism): information from Answers. com The Wikipedia. org

Tuesday, March 17, 2020

(2).doc Essays (29222 words) - Free Essays, Term Papers

(2).doc Essays (29222 words) - Free Essays, Term Papers ..3 1 .5 1.1. ...5 1.2. 7 ..17 2 19 2.1 - , 19 2.2 ..22 ...24 ...26 .28 . . . , . - , , . , . , , . , . , . , . , . , . , . , . , . , . , . , . , . , . . : , , . , , . , , , . . , . , . . . . , : 1. . 2. . 3. - , . 4. . : : ; , ; -; . , , . : , , (16 , 4 ). 29 , 27 . 1 1.1. , . , , . (R. Querk) - (, , , , , ). - . (O. Jasperson) , , , , shall will [4, . 70]. , , . . , , shall , , , : You shall go to the dining room first (). You shall not do that again (-). You shall not run away before you answer (). Whatever I know, you shall know () [1, . 81-82]. , ( shall ) , , . will, ,

Sunday, March 1, 2020

Make Hot Ice - Heating Pad Chemistry

Make Hot Ice - Heating Pad Chemistry Heres an easy chemistry project you can do in which you take a clear liquid and instantaneously solidify it into hot ice. It isnt water ice, however. This is how you make crystals of sodium acetate, which is used in hand warmers and chemical heating pads and hot packs. Hot Ice Materials sodium acetatewatersaucepanglass or pan Making Your Own Sodium Acetate Monohydrate If you dont have any sodium acetate monohydrate you can make your own. Add baking soda (sodium bicarbonate) to vinegar (weak acetic acid) until the mixture stops fizzing. This will give you an aqueous solution of sodium acetate. If you boil off the water, youll be left with the sodium acetate. Expect to use a lot of baking soda and vinegar if you go this route. Make the Hot Ice What you are going to do is make a supersaturated sodium acetate solution. The solution will remain a supercooled liquid until a little solid sodium acetate is introduced. This will cause rapid crystallization that will resemble a block of ice, except it will be hot to the touch and not edible. Dump some sodium acetate monohydrate into a saucepan.Add just enough water to dissolve the sodium acetate.Heat the solution to just below its boiling point.Stir in more sodium acetate. Keep stirring and adding sodium acetate until you start to see solid material accumulating at the bottom of the pan.Pour the hot solution into a glass or other container. Do not allow any of the undissolved solid to enter the container.Cool the solution in the refrigerator 30 minutes to an hour.Remove the solution from the refrigerator. As long as you didnt leave any solid sodium acetate in the solution, it should still be liquid.When you are ready to make ice introduce a little of the solid sodium acetate. You could dip a toothpick or the edge of a spoon in sodium acetate powder.The crystallization will evolve heat (exothermic reaction), making the solid feel hot to the touch (~130Â ° F). Hot Ice Trick You dont have to solidify the sodium acetate in a dish. You can crystallize it as the solution is being poured to make fantastic shapes.

Friday, February 14, 2020

Clocks in the Vasculature Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Clocks in the Vasculature - Essay Example An example is mammalian sleep rhythm or hunger, and its is now well known that there is a light-controlled master clock in the brain that controls these activities. Now the research is exploring the molecular mechanisms of these clocks in the peripheral tissues, which have been postulated to work through nutrient availability, although the exact mechanism is not known. heart which is essentially vascular tissue. This activity physiologically is autonomous, originating in the neurocardiac muscles of the heart and in health, occurs 72 times per minute in a regular fashion. In most and usual cases, human beings cannot control the frequency of these beats on their own. However, several neurophysiological conditions can cause change in this pattern and there is established roles of emotion, feelings, strenuous activities, stress in destabilizing this clock either to a higher or a lower rate, and there are physiological systems that tends to bring back these abnormal rates to normal through neural and humoral mechanisms. Small molecules interact with molecular hormone receptors module circadian rhythm. Catecholamines, vasoactive hormones, such as vasopressin and angiotensin interact with positive circadian regulators both centrally and at the peripheral vascular tissues to express circadian variations in heart rates, blood pressure, and vascular resistance (Harris, 2009). Genetic Mechanism Curtis et al. (2004) indicated the molecular mechanism of this clock. This occurs through pacemaker rhythms generated and sustained through positive and negative feedback loops. These in turn are mediated through transcriptional regulation at the genetic level (Curtis et al. 2004). Molecular Mechanism The drivers of this biological and molecular rhythmicity are transcriptional activation of of Per and Cry genes. These occur through transcriptional activation of feedback loop by heterodimeric bHLH-PAS proteins. It has been shown that these trascriptional coactivators and histone acetyltransferase initiate the key events in molecular rhythmicity. These, p300/CBP, PCAF, and ACTR, react with bHLH-PAS proteins, CLOCK and NPSA2, to lead to positive gene expression (Ko and Takahashi, 2006). Link to Vasculature The negative feedback loop is mediated by Cry2 mediated repression of NPAS2:BMAL1 through overexpression of p300. This leads to a circadian and time-dependent association with NPAS2 in the vasculature, which is timed in such a manner that it will precede the peak expression of the target genes (Westgate et al., 2008). Therefore, at the molecular level this is essentially a histone H3 acetylation. It has been correlated with the cyclical expression of the mRNAs

Saturday, February 1, 2020

Management Information System Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Management Information System - Case Study Example It becomes more personalised and gives the customer more accurate information. Making the whole service contract process friendlier and quicker is one way to help gain more service customers because it should result in the sale of more of these contracts. The company wants to automate its entire application process to speed up everything for both APCO and its customers and to eliminate much of the reliance on paper documents. Extract the information as easily as possible, without a lot of IT over- head Use the Internet as a Channel to achieve the above goals Information systems and business strategy now align with each other to deliver Strategic information systems. Such systems deliver Computer system at any level of an organisation; changes goals, operations, products, services, or environmental relationships and helps organisation gain a competitive advantage The Internet is changing the role of information systems in organisations. The Internet is capable of dramatically reducing transaction and agency costs. Businesses are rapidly rebuilding some key business processes based on Internet technology. Internet technology becoming a key component of IT infrastructure. The need of the hour was to have a new Sales Management system and a Claims Processing System that would allow APCO to manage sales more efficiently and process claims with limited overheads and maximum efficiency and modify business processes to align to the new information processing systems. The systems need to use the Internet as a delivery channel to deliver maximum benefits to the new business processes structured around this channel. Both these above systems are Operational level systems. As a first step APCO wants to introduce a comprehensive electronic document- management (or... The Internet is changing the role of information systems in organisations. The Internet is capable of dramatically reducing transaction and agency costs. Businesses are rapidly rebuilding some key business processes based on Internet technology. Internet technology becoming a key component of IT infrastructure. The need of the hour was to have a new Sales Management system and a Claims Processing System that would allow APCO to manage sales more efficiently and process claims with limited overheads and maximum efficiency and modify business processes to align to the new information processing systems. The systems need to use the Internet as a delivery channel to deliver maximum benefits to the new business processes structured around this channel. Both these above systems are Operational level systems. As a first step APCO wants to introduce a comprehensive electronic document- management (or content-management) system.